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Peroxynitrite is an inorganic toxin of physiological interest, formed from the diffusion‐controlled reaction of superoxide and nitrogen monoxide with a rate constant of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1010 M ‐ 1 s ‐ 1. On the basis of three experiments we conclude that homolysis of the O‐O bond in...
The biochemistry of the mitochondrial production of nitric oxide is reviewed to gain insight into the basic role of this radical in mitochondrial and cellular oxidative metabolism. The mitochondrial production of nitric oxide is catalyzed by a nitric‐oxide synthase (mtNOS). This enzyme has the...
In the mid 1990s a number of research groups recognized that mitochondrial oxygen consumption could be reversibly inhibited by nitric oxide at the level of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. The inhibition was apparently competitive with respect to the oxygen concentration. This review critically...
Micromolar nitric oxide (NO) rapidly (ms) inhibits cytochrome c oxidase in turnover with physiological substrates. Two reaction mechanisms have been identified leading, respectively, to formation of a nitrosyl‐ (a32+‐NO) or a nitrite‐ (a33+‐NO2‐) derivative of the enzyme. In the...
In addition to their vital role as the cell's power stations, mitochondria exert an important function in apoptosis. In response to most if not all apoptosis inducers, mitochondrial membranes are permeabilized, leading to the release of potentially toxic proteins, mostly from the intermembrane...
Endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide (NO) possesses anti‐parasitic effects on both Protozoa and Metazoa. However, NO production requires a tight control to limit cytotoxic damage to the host's own cells. The best known parasitic macromolecular targets for NO(‐donors) are cysteine proteases,...
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) have been extensively recognized as important signaling molecules implicated in physiological processes such as gene expression, cell differentiation and immune activation. Nevertheless, continuous production of these species may produce...
Nitric oxide (NO), first characterized as an endothelium‐derived relaxation factor, is involved in diverse cellular processes including neuronal signaling, blood pressure homeostasis, and immune response. Recent studies have also revealed a role for NO as a signaling molecule in plants. As a...
Truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) build a separate subfamily within the hemoglobin superfamily; they are scarcely related by sequence similarity to (non‐)vertebrate hemoglobins, displaying amino acid sequences in the 115 ‐ 130 residue range. The trHb tertiary structure is based on a 2‐on‐2...
The structural and catalytic properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cd1 nitrite reductase, a key enzyme in bacterial denitrification, are reviewed in this paper. The mechanism of reduction of nitrite to NO is discussed in detail with special attention to the structural interpretation of function....
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