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The hemoflagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of the Chagas disease, a progressive fatal cardiomyopathy that afflicts more than 20 million people in Central and South America. The T. cruzi life cycle is affected by changes in temperature and pH, the parasite...
Phosphoinositide signaling pathways regulate many essential cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation and survival, cytoskeletal organization, and vesicular trafficking. The inositol polyphosphate 5‐phosphatases regulate the cellular levels of several bioactive...
A3 Val is important for insulin activity. It is invariant in insulins from different species studied thus far. Based on the three dimensional structure of insulin, it was thought to be involved in receptor binding. Its replacement by Leu resulted in remarkable lowering of insulin activity,...
14‐3‐3 proteins are a class of highly conserved proteins widespread in eukaryotes. They regulate several cellular processes through phosphorylation‐dependent interaction with their targets. Since their discovery in plants, a number of peculiar functions have been ascertained, such as...
Recent studies have identified the inositol polyphosphate 5‐phosphatases as a large family of signal modifying enzymes comprising 10 mammalian and 4 yeast family members. A number of investigations including gene‐targeted deletion of 5‐phosphatases in mice have demonstrated that these...
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a large and structurally diverse family of enzymes that are found in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, viruses, and plants. PTPs catalyse the dephosphorylation of tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins and can either antagonise or potentiate protein tyrosine kinase...
Phosphatidylinositol 3‐phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) acts as a second messenger via the recruitment of diverse signalling proteins to various cellular compartments. Recent advances have highlighted the association of human diseases with mutations in phosphatases that regulate PtdIns(3)P levels....
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