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Most mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and thus have to be imported into mitochondria from the cytosol. Protein translocation across and into the mitochondrial membranes is a multistep process facilitated by the coordinated action of at least four specialized translocation...
NO or its derivatives (reactive nitrogen species: RNS) have three types of actions on mitochondria: 1) reversible inhibition of mitochondrial respiration at cytochrome oxidase by NO, and irreversible inhibition at multiple sites by RNS; 2) stimulation of mitochondrial production of superoxide,...
The multifaceted relationship between mitochondria and the rest of the cell is reviewed in the context of myocardial ischemia. Paradoxically, mitochondria can exacerbate the ischemic damage, especially at the onset of reperfusion. Indeed, the recovery of oxidative phosphorylation in the presence...
Mitochondria are major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS); the main sites of superoxide radical production in the respiratory chain are Complexes III and I; however, other mitochondrial enzymes, such as Complex II, glycerol‐1‐phosphate dehydrogenase, and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase,...
The uncoupling protein UCP1 is a member of a superfamily of homologous proteins formed by the mitochondrial metabolite transporters. Although they act in vivo as carriers, under specific experimental conditions some of these transporters have been shown to behave as channels. This dual transport...
Signaling cascades often utilize highly ordered interactions between intracellular organelles to propagate a particular signal throughout the cell. In many apoptotic paradigms, the stress signal is delivered to the mitochondria, and mitochondria release to the cytosol several apoptotic factors,...
Although the mitochondrial Complex I has been extensively studied for over 4 decades, its catalytic properties in mitochondria are poorly understood. This review summarizes the data on standard and nonstandard kinetic parameters of the enzyme. The slow interconversion between active and...
The mitochondrial K + cycle consists of influx and efflux pathways for K + and anions. Net movement of K + salts across the inner membrane causes changes of matrix volume, so regulation of the cycle is vital for maintaining the structural integrity of the organelle. The mitochondrial K + cycle...
Complex I of the mammalian electron transfer chain is composed of at least 43 protein subunits, of which 7 are encoded by mtDNA. It catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone and translocates protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. It may also play...
The literature, reviewed in the previous article, supports three physiological roles for sequestration of calcium by mitochondria: 1) control of the rate of ATP production, 2) activation of the Ca 2+ ‐induced mitochondrial permeability transition (PT), and 3) modulation of cytosolic Ca 2+...
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