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Mitochondria are considered the major cellular site for hydrogen peroxide production, a process that is kinetically controlled by the availability of oxygen and nitric oxide to cytochrome oxidase and of ADP to F1‐ATPase. The multisite regulation of mi1 tochondrial respiration and...
Here we review the current knowledge on the biochemistry and molecular pathology of oxidative stress with specific regard to a major aldehydic end‐product stemming from peroxidation of biomembranes, that is 4‐hydroxynonenal (HNE). This multifunctional molecule, which derives from the most...
The production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) by the myeloperoxidase‐H2O2‐Cl system of phagocytes plays a vital role in the ability of these cells to kill a wide range of pathogens. However, the generation of a potent oxidant is not without risk to the host, and there is evidence that HOCl...
The roles of methionine residues in proteins have not been well defined, but a review of available studies leads to the conclusion that methionine, like cysteine, functions as an antioxidant and as a key component of a system for regulation of cellular metabolism. Methionine is readily oxidized...
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is widely regarded as a cytotoxic agent whose levels must be minimized by the action of antioxidant defence enzymes. In fact, H2O2 is poorly reactive in the absence of transition metal ions. Exposure of certain human tissues to H2O2 may be greater than is commonly...
Copper is an essential trace element, but its redox reactivity leads to risks of damage to cell and tissues. These are well exemplified by several forms of neurodegenerative diseases, either arising as inherited disorders of copper metabolism, such as Menkes' and Wilson's disease, or as...
Exposure of proteins to oxidants leads to increased oxidation followed by preferential degradation by the proteasomal system. The role of the biological oxidant production in microglial BV‐2 cells in the oxidation and turnover of endogenous proteins was measured. It could be demonstrated, that...
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