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This article describes a way for the effects of portrait photos in the mass media to be investigated by combining split ballot experiments and media content analysis. In a first step, visual signals with distinct effects on perception are identified on the basis of theory and of empirical...
Hayes, Glynn, and Shanahan (2005) defined self-censorship as the withholding of one’s opinion around an audience perceived to disagree with that opinion . They argued that people differ in their willingness to self-censor and introduced an 8-item self-report instrument, the Willingness to...
Does perceived disagreement in political discussion help or hinder citizens’ political participation? Some argue that disagreement prompts reflection, perspective-taking, and tolerance. Challengers argue that disagreement fosters ambivalence and hinders participatory activities and turnout. One...
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