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Attachment theory emphasizes the role of negative emotional expression in infancy for establishing proximity to and care of the caregiver. According to Lang's biphasic model of emotions protective reflexes (e.g. startle response) are primed if a defensive motivational set is activated. The aim of...
The large N1 wave of the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) typically occurring to the first stimulus after a long silent interval seems to be associated with the involuntary initial-orienting response. Since the mechanisms involved in the generation of this brain response are assumed to be...