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IL-5 was originally defined as a T-cell-derived cytokine that triggers activated B cells for terminal differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells, at least in mice. Concurrently, IL-5 was recognized as the major maturation and differentiation factor for eosinophils in mice and humans....
Sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-signaling plays a critical role in T-cell-mediated IL-2 production. Although many downstream targets are known for ERK, details remain unknown about which molecules play functional roles in IL-2 production. Here, we addressed this question...
TCR expression on double-positive (DP) thymocytes is a prerequisite for thymic selection that results in the generation of mature CD4 + and CD8 + single-positive T cells. TCR is expressed at very low level on preselection DP thymocytes and is dramatically up-regulated on positively selected...
The release of the soluble form of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha from the plasma membrane occurs through the activation of the secretase tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE). The current study was designed to examine whether the anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies (Abs) are capable to...
It has been over a hundred years since Shibasaburo Kitasato and Emil Adolf von Boehring's finding of a serum component that neutralizes bacterial toxins and the subsequent development of antiserum therapy. Over that time, many Japanese researchers have greatly contributed to our understanding of...
MBP-specific autoreactive T cells are considered pro-inflammatory T cells and thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we report that MBP 83–99 -specific T cells generated from MS patients ( n = 7) were comprised of pro-inflammatory and regulatory...
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