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Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling controls many aspects of cell behaviour and is implicated as a key regulator in tumour formation and progression. However, evaluating levels of active TGF-β in culture medium or patient plasma and gaining definitive information regarding the...
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) can mediate proteoglycan synthesis via Smad and non-Smad signalling pathways in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We investigated whether TGF-β-mediated proteoglycan synthesis is via PI3K/Akt. TGF-β induced a rapid phosphorylation of Akt that continued upto 4...
All transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands are synthesised as precursor molecules consisting of a signal peptide, an N-terminal prodomain and a C-terminal mature domain. During synthesis, prodomains interact non-covalently with mature domains, maintaining the molecules in a conformation...
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a central mediator of fibrogenesis. TGF-β is upregulated and activated in fibrotic diseases and modulates fibroblast phenotype and function, inducing myofibroblast transdifferentiation while promoting matrix preservation. Studies in a wide range of...
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) is associated with cardiovascular disease, inflammation, body weight regulation and cancer. Its serum levels facilitate the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer and vascular disease. Furthermore, its serum levels are a powerful predictor of all-cause...
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family signaling regulates cell growth and differentiation of many different cell types and is widely involved in the regulation of homeostasis during both embryogenesis and adult life. Therefore, aberrant TGF-β family signal transduction is linked to...
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