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There are four members of the EGFR family: EGFR, erbB2, erbB3 and erbB4. These receptors form ligand-activated oligomers which regulate intracellular processes via an oligomeric tyrosine kinase scaffold. The receptors are activated when the extracellular domain undergoes a conformational change...
Objective . The concept of skeletal muscle homeostasis—often viewed as the net balance between two separate processes, namely protein degradation and protein synthesis—are not occurring independently of each other, but are finely co-ordinated by a web of intricate signalling networks....
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pluripotent cytokine that can have both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects on epithelial cells. It is unclear what determines when TGF-β and its signaling pathway act predominantly as a tumor suppressor pathway or as a tumor-promoter pathway...
Objectives . Loading of biological matrices offers an opportunity to induce specific cell behaviour. We previously reported the use of growth factors to promote cell invasion and proliferation in tissue valve engineering. We investigated biological matrices preloaded with heparin as an ionically...
We compared anabolic and anti-catabolic activities of selected bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2, -4, -6, and -7) and cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins (CDMP-1 and -2) in human normal adult articular chondrocytes. Ankle chondrocytes were cultured in alginate beads in the presence of 10%...
Both nicotine and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been proposed to play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In vitro and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that nicotine significantly stimulates VEGF expression in several cell types. This study...
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