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Black liquor, a by-product of the papermaking alkaline Kraft process, is an important liquid fuel in the pulp and paper industry. Black liquor consists of Kraft lignin constituents and residual carboxylic acids. The black liquors can be converted to liquid, gas, and char fuels by chemical and...
Geothermal energy is clean, cheap, and renewable. Geothermal utilization is commonly divided into two categories: electric production and direct application. Geothermal power is the use of geothermal heat for electricity generation. It is more competitive in countries that have limited...
Geothermal energy has a big importance among the renewable energy sources. In flash systems, steam quality is increased by flashing geothermal fluid. When suitable conditions exist, second flash can be used, which increases the energy production to a great extent. In double-stage flash system,...
Supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) of hazelnut shell and hazelnut kernel husk samples were carried out and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet solvent extraction method in lab conditions. N-hexane and methanol as solvents were used in both extractions. Statistical results...
Oil shale presents the only available fossil fuel in Jordan besides limited reserves of natural gas. Jordanian oil shale—with a proven amount of about 5 10 10 tons—is of quite good quality. It has relatively low ash and moisture content, gross calorific value of 7.5 MJ/kg, and oil yield of...
Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Vegetable oils do not contain any sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, or crude oil residues. Short-term engine tests indicate good potential for...
CO 2 can be sequestered in coal seams considering the environmental issues. By means of injecting CO 2 into the coal seams, both sequestration of CO 2 and the enhanced recovery of methane inside the coal seam can be realized. One-dimensional simulation regarding the binary CO 2 /CH 4 flow in a...
In this study, the higher heating values (HHVs) of 26 lignite samples were calculated by using the proximate and elemental analyses data. The proximate analysis results such as volatile materials (VM), fixed carbon (FC) and HHV and the elemental analysis results such as carbon (C), hydrogen (H),...
Tall oil is a by-product of coniferous wood recovered in the Kraft pulping process. Fatty acids can be recovered from tall oil by vacuum distillation. Biodiesel is becoming a displacement alternative for petroleum diesel. Chemically, biodiesel is a fatty acid (m)ethyl ester. Fatty acid...
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