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Flowering plants often exhibit declining investment in gametes, seeds, and floral organs among sequentially blooming flowers within inflorescences. However, few experimental studies have determined the relative importance of proximate underlying causes such as architectural constraints or...
Landscape change has great, yet infrequently measured, potential to influence the susceptibility of natural systems to invasive species impacts. We quantified attack by an invasive biological control weevil ( Rhinocyllus conicus ) on native thistles in relation to two types of landscape change:...
Processes operating at multiple spatial scales govern the structure and functioning of ecological communities. We conducted a resource manipulation and propagule addition experiment in grassland to evaluate the interaction of local resource availability and propagule pools in governing...
Do reproducing female reptiles adaptively manipulate phenotypic traits of their offspring by selecting appropriate nest sites? Evidence to support this hypothesis is indirect, mostly involving the distinctive characteristics of used (vs. available) nest sites, and the fact that physical...
Many species of vertebrate animals skip reproduction in some years. We studied the pattern of reproduction exhibited by female four-toed salamanders ( Hemidactylium scutatum ). Data from a 10-year field study showed that females reproduced in sequential years with a frequency of 0.56 but skipped...
Plants employ nectar for two distinct functions. Floral nectar has traditionally been viewed in the context of pollination. Extrafloral nectar on the other hand, can act as an indirect defense, allowing the plant to recruit predators and parasitoids. Whereas this makes for a clear-cut...
Tadpole density dependence has repeatedly been studied in laboratories and mesocosms, but rarely in natural ponds. The present study manipulated density in three ponds; each pond was divided into one low density section and one high density section. The experiment was run for eight years,...
We review an increasingly commonly used experimental approach in avian ecological studies that typifies the difficulties of maximizing two major components of experimental design: internal and external validity. Avian ecologists estimate reproductive success by measuring the rate at which nests...
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