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Economic growth affects the environment negatively. A polluted environment and other environmental constraints reduce economic output and the well-being of consumers. The cost to society of environmental constraints may be called the environmental drag. The traditional economic analysis of growth...
As economic systems develop over time they tend to become more complex with more structure and greater throughputs, assuming favorable conditions. Energy use increases as more economic sectors develop and more channels for flow are opened. Economic diversity, as measured by the number of economic...
The main purpose of this article is to evaluate different policy options for promoting low-impact logging through the use of economic incentives. To do this we construct a small optimal control theory model within an integrated framework including both the biological and the economic implications...