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Changes in forest resources have been estimated in a variety of ways. This paper focuses on extensive forest surveys rather than on sentinel-site investigations. The sampling design and plot design used are key to precise estimates of change. Alternative sampling designs include temporary...
In intensive agricultural areas small woodlots and woody hedgerows constitute the only remnant of natural forested habitats. Because they are reduced in size and are surrounded by farmlands, remnant habitats may be impacted by several abiotic factors. The conservation value of these habitats,...
For birds and many other animal taxa, surveys that collect count data form a primary source of information on population change. Because counts are only indices to population size, care must be taken in using them in analyses of population change. Temporal or geographic differences in the...
As part of a workshop sponsored by the Sustainable Biosphere Initiative on Change and Trend Detection, we have reviewed some general considerations pertinent to establishing long-term monitoring programs. A general goal of most long-term monitoring is to assign causality and establish mechanisms...
Economists and ecologists often disagree. While some of these disagreements arise from differences in individual perspectives, and some others may arise from a fundamental difference in paradigms, others may arise from simple misunderstandings. Economists are often remiss in not fully explaining...
Fires in tropical savannas are a principal source of emissions to the atmosphere, but there are few studies of retention in ash and residual plant mass following natural fires. Estimates of carbon and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere from biomass burning have relied largely on indirect...
The effects of herbivores on landscape patterns and ecosystem processes have generally been inferred only from small-plot or exclosure experiments. However, it is important to directly determine the interactions between herbivores and landscape patterns, because herbivores range over large...
American law, with its emphasis on boundary lines and property rights, does not reflect an advanced understanding of ecology. Nonetheless, on the federal public domain, the concept of ecosystem management has now been endorsed by all of the federal land-management agencies. Despite few explicit...
This paper begins with the premise that communication regarding ecological risk and ecologically based management decisions should be improved. Failures of communication are attributed to lack of terms, indicators, and measures that are based in ecological science, but that are also associated...
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