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Abstract CYP3A4 is an important determinant of drug-drug interactions. In this study, we evaluated whether cytochrome P450 3A knockout mice Cyp3a(−/−) and CYP3A4 transgenic (CYP3A4-Tg) mice can be used to study drug-drug interactions in the liver and intestine. Triazolam was used as a probe...
Abstract The antiprotozoal agent quinacrine is a lipophilic cationic drug highly distributed to tissues. It has been used in the present experiments to examine whether the vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology induced by organic amines is independent from the therapeutic class. Furthermore, we...
Abstract We tested the hypothesis that primary cultures of human hepatocytes could predict potential drug interactions with methadone and buprenorphine. Hepatocytes (five donors) were preincubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (vehicle), rifampin, or nelfinavir before incubation with methadone...
Abstract Gemfibrozil 1- O -β-glucuronide is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C8. We studied the recovery of CYP2C8 activity after discontinuation of gemfibrozil treatment using repaglinide as a probe drug, to estimate the in vivo turnover half-life of CYP2C8. In a randomized...
Abstract Human aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) has been subcloned into a vector suitable for expression in Escherichia coli , and the protein has been expressed. The resulting protein is active, with sulfur being incorporated in the molybdopterin cofactor. Expression levels are modest, but 1 liter of...
Abstract Metabolism of pyridalyl 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxypropyl ether was examined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. After a single oral administration of dichlorophenyl- 14 Cpyridalyl at 5 or 500 mg/kg, the 14 C concentration in blood...
Abstract The metabolism in primary human hepatocyte cultures often deviates from that in clinical studies, which in turn are hampered by ethical constraints. Here the use of urokinase-type plasminogen activator-severe combined immunodeficiency uPA(+/+)-SCID mice transplanted with human...
Abstract The hepatobiliary transport and local disposition of rosuvastatin in pig were investigated, along with the impact of concomitant dosing with two known multiple transport inhibitors; cyclosporine and gemfibrozil. Rosuvastatin (80 mg) was administered as an intrajejunal bolus dose in...
Abstract Time-dependent inactivation (TDI) of human cytochromes P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a major cause of clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Human liver microsomes (HLM) are commonly used as an enzyme source for evaluating the inhibition of CYP3A4 by new chemical entities. The inhibition data...
Abstract The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin and clarithromycin are large molecular weight compounds that exhibit moderate to excellent oral bioavailability in preclinical species and humans. Previous concomitant dosing studies in rats using rifamycin SV, a general organic anion-transporting...
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