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Ions of high atomic number and energy (HZE particles) pose a significant cancer risk to astronauts on prolonged space missions. On Earth, similar ions are being used for targeted cancer therapy. The properties of these particles can be drastically altered during passage through spacecraft...
As demonstrated recently, ionizing radiation (IR) can mediate phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs in human tumor cells through stimulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. It is also known that DNA-PKcs directly interacts the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1) involved in base excision...
Thymidylate deprivation brings about “thymineless death” in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the precise mechanism for thymineless death has remained elusive, inhibition of the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS), which catalyzes the de novo synthesis of TMP, has served for many years as a...
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are the precursors of all different cell types comprising the organism. Since persistent DNA damage in this cell type might lead to mutations that cause huge malformations in the developing organism, genome caretaking is of prime importance. We first...
Human alkyladenine-DNA glycosylase (AAG) initiates base excision repair (BER) of alkylated and deaminated bases in DNA. Here, we assessed the mutability of the AAG substrate binding pocket, and the essentiality of individual binding pocket amino acids for survival of methylation damage. We used...
UvrB is the main damage recognition protein in bacterial nucleotide excision repair and is capable of recognizing various structurally unrelated types of damage. Previously we have shown that upon binding of Escherichia coli UvrB to damaged DNA two nucleotides become extrahelical: the nucleotide...
Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients carry germ-line mutations in DNA polymerase η (polη), a major translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerase, and exhibit severe sunlight sensitivity and high predisposition to skin cancer. Using a quantitative TLS assay system based on gapped plasmids...
Transcription-coupled DNA repair is a mechanism by which bulky DNA lesions that block transcription by RNA polymerase are prioritised for removal by the nucleotide excision repair apparatus. The trigger is thought to be the presence of an irreversibly blocked transcription complex, which is...
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