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Exposure of cells to hypertonic medium after X-irradiation results in a 3–4-fold increase in the phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX) at sites of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This increase was previously associated with salt-induced radiosensitization and inhibition of repair...
The DNA polymerase β (Pol β) null background renders mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells base excision repair deficient and hyper-mutagenic upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). This effect involves an increase in all types of base...
Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) excises a structurally diverse group of damaged purines including hypoxanthine, 1, N 6 -ethenoadenine, 3-methyladenine, and 7-methylguanine from DNA to initiate base excision repair at these sites. Excision occurs in an enzyme·DNA complex in which the damaged...
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterotrimeric checkpoint clamp consisting of the Rad17, Mec3, and Ddc1 subunits (Rad17/3/1, the 9-1-1 complex in humans) is an early response factor to DNA damage in a signal transduction pathway leading to the activation of the checkpoint system and eventually to...
Progression of DNA replication is occasionally blocked by endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. To circumvent the stalling of DNA replication, cells possess a variety of specialized DNA polymerases that replicate through DNA damage. Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 has six DNA polymerases and...
Ethylene oxide (EO) is an important industrial chemical that is classified as a known human carcinogen (IARC, Group 1). It is also a metabolite of ethylene (ET), a compound that is ubiquitous in the environment and is the most used petrochemical. ET has not produced evidence of cancer in...
The activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is highly stimulated following DNA damage resulting in formation of DNA nicks and strand breaks. This leads to modification of numerous proteins, including itself, using NAD + as substrate and to exhaustion of intracellular ATP. A highly...
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