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Conditional (if-then) reasoning is one of the key components of logical reasoning. Studies examining the way that children and adults make conditional inferences have shown that while there are some clear developmental patterns, there is also a great deal of variation in performance due to...
This article examines issues related to risk and culture, with particular emphasis on how risk impinges on children growing up in Africa. The article treats risk as an emic (cultural-insider and culture-specific) rather than an etic (science-driven and generalizable) concept (Pike, 1957). It...
Theories of stress and adaptation in adulthood typically focus on recent influences on developmental change. What needs more attention in developmental studies is a stronger emphasis on the relationship between proximal and distal experiences in explaining developmental outcome. To address the...
In this article, we review empirical findings that misinformation effects in children are the joint product of automatic or unconscious and intentional or conscious processes. First, we outline the extant literature on multiple systems and process models of memory. Second, we examine how dual...
A dual-process framework is proposed for understanding how the self-system negotiates the conflicting demands of ensuring a stable pursuit of goals and plans while adjusting to changes that affect their attainability. The model distinguishes two basic modes of reducing discrepancies between...
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