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The molecular repertoire for innate recognition of bacterial pathogens has expanded rapidly in the past decade. These immunosensors include Toll-like receptors and the more recently defined NOD-like receptors (NLRs): NODs, NALPs, NAIP and IPAF. Toll-like receptors signal from the cell surface or...
Antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules is necessary for CD8 T-cell activation. Optimal peptide loading onto MHC class I molecules occurs mainly in the peptide-loading complex in the endoplasmic reticulum. The identification of a covalent association between the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57...
Mast cells are highly effective sentinel cells, found close to blood vessels and especially common sites of potential infection, such as the skin, airways and gastrointestinal tract. Mast cells participate actively in the innate immune responses to many pathogens through a broad spectrum of...
Technological advances have allowed for the creation of ever more complete maps of targets of immune responses in infectious pathogens. The evidence accumulating from such recent studies points to a broader range of targets recognized than previously expected, in terms of both numbers and...
In mammalian cells, the products of microbial infection are recognized by pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) proteins. Virus recognition is mediated in part by PRRs that comprise a subset of Toll-like receptors or a family of RNA helicases, the latter of which contain caspase activation and...
Durable adaptive immunity is dependent upon CD4 T-cell recognition of MHC class II molecules that display peptides from exogenous and endogenous antigens. Endogenously expressed cytosolic and nuclear antigens access MHC class II by way of several intracellular autophagic routes. These pathways...
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