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Practice improves the performance in visual tasks, but mechanisms underlying this adult brain plasticity are unclear. Single-cell studies reported no ( 1 ), weak ( 2 ), or moderate ( 3, 4 ) perceptual learning-related changes in macaque visual areas V1 and V4, whereas none were found in middle...
Synaptic ribbons are specialized organelles that hold vesicles close to the active zone of sensory synapses, but their function is mysterious. Acute disruption of the ribbon complex using light has now revealed that it has a role in priming synaptic vesicles for fusion.
Discussions of actin cell biology generally focus on the cortex, a thin, actin-rich layer of cytoplasm under the plasma membrane. Here we review the much less studied biology of actin filaments deeper in the cytoplasm and their recently revealed functions in mitosis and meiosis that are most...
An expansion–repression mechanism by which morphogen gradients can adjust to size and growth had been postulated as a model. Now, its molecular nature has been uncovered.
Background In worms, as in other organisms, many tissue-specific promoters are sequestered at the nuclear periphery when repressed and shift inward when activated. It has remained unresolved, however, whether the association of facultative heterochromatin with the nuclear periphery, or its...
Leaf initiation was previously thought to be self-regulated and not reliant on environmental cues. However, a recent study has revealed that light redirects meristem fate from maintenance to lateral organ initiation, through the regulation of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin.
Background Synaptic interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neocortical neurons are important for mammalian sensory perception. Synaptic transmission between identified neurons within neocortical microcircuits has mainly been studied in brain slice preparations in vitro. Here, we...
Background The eukaryotic cell cycle begins with a burst of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation. In budding yeast, several Cdk substrates are preferentially phosphorylated at the G1/S transition rather than later in the cell cycle when Cdk activity levels are high. These early Cdk...
It is broadly accepted that long-term memory (LTM) is formed sequentially after learning and short-term memory (STM) formation, but the nature of the relationship between early and late memory traces remains heavily debated ( 1–5 ). To shed light on this issue, we used an olfactory appetitive...
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