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During mitosis, the motor molecule cytoplasmic dynein plays key direct and indirect roles in organizing microtubules (MTs) into a functional spindle. At this time, dynein is also recruited to kinetochores, but its role or roles at these organelles remain vague, partly because inhibiting dynein...
ROP/RAC GTPases are master regulators of cell polarity in plants, implicated in the regulation of diverse signaling cascades including cytoskeleton organization, vesicle trafficking, and Ca 2+ gradients (1–8) . The involvement of ROPs in differentiation processes is yet unknown. Here we show...
Lightness is the apparent reflectance of a surface, and it depends not only on the actual luminance of the surface but also on the context in which the surface is viewed (1–10) . The cortical mechanisms of lightness processing are largely unknown, and the role of early cortical areas is still a...
Recent quantitative analyses of ribosomal protein trafficking in HeLa cells have revealed a prominent and unexpected role for the proteasome in regulating the availability of ribosomal proteins for subunit assembly.
The yeast pheromone response pathway works in a graded fashion, such that more pheromone leads to more response, but a recent study has shown that small modifications convert it into a bistable switch, with implications for the evolution and engineering of reaction networks.
Background A major challenge is to understand how the walls of expanding plant cells are correctly assembled and remodeled, often in the presence of wall-degrading micro-organisms. Plant cells, like yeast, react to cell-wall perturbations as shown by changes in gene expression, accumulation of...
Gastrulation is a morphogenetic process in which tightly coordinated cell and tissue movements establish the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) to define the anterior-to-posterior embryonic organization (1) . To elicit this movement, cells modulate membrane protrusions and...
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