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Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are the central regulators of the cell division cycle. Inhibitors of Cdks ensure proper coordination of cell cycle events and help regulate cell proliferation in the context of tissues and organs. Wee1 homologs phosphorylate a conserved tyrosine to inhibit the...
Chromosome aberrations are common outcomes of exposure to DNA-damaging agents or altered replication events and are associated with various diseases and a variety of carcinomas, including leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas, and epithelial tumors (1, 2) . The incidence of aberrations can be greatly...
Recent studies show that hyperactivated mTOR, the ‘target of rapamycin’ that senses nutrient availability in eukaryotic cells, inhibits signaling by insulin receptor substrates. This crosstalk reveals how hyperactivated mTOR may suppress metastasis locally, while causing systemic insulin...
Size is a fundamental attribute impacting cellular design, fitness, and function. Size homeostasis requires a doubling of cell mass with each division. In yeast, division is delayed until a critical size has been achieved. In metazoans, cell cycles can be actively coupled to growth, but in...
Mitotic microtubules are moved toward spindle poles in a process known as flux. Several proteins responsible for flux have recently been identified, significantly advancing our understanding of chromosome movements in mitosis.
In mammalian spermatogenesis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced during the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase ( m eiotic s ex c hromosome i nactivation, MSCI), forming a condensed chromatin domain termed the sex or XY body (1–3) . The nucleosomal core histone H2AX is...
The CREB family of proteins are critical mediators of gene expression in response to extracellular signals and are essential regulators of adaptive behavior and long-term memory formation (1–4) . The TORC proteins were recently described as potent CREB coactivators, but their role in regulation...
Accurate chromosome segregation requires that the two sister kinetochores attach to microtubules from opposite spindle poles. New work reveals how a kinetochore can segregate properly while remaining improperly attached to two spindle poles.
It is commonly thought that neural activity in the visual cortex reflects retinal input. Recent studies, however, suggest that patterns of cortical activity are mostly intrinsically generated, and that visual input exerts but a modulatory influence.
Feelings of insecurity amongst academic staff on short-term contracts are widespread. The European Union is trying to improve things but there are fears its policies may backfire. Nigel Williams reports.
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