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Tissues of long-lived multicellular organisms have to maintain a constant number of functioning cells for many years. This process is called homeostasis. Homeostasis breaks down when cells emerge with mutations in tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Such mutated cells can have increased net...
Insulin signaling controls organ growth and final body size in insects. Recent results have begun to clarify how insulin signaling drives organ growth to match nutrient levels, but have not yet elucidated how insulin signaling controls final body size.
The DAF-16 transcription factor controls aging in C. elegans as part of an insulin-like signaling pathway. Identification of a target of DAF-16 has opened a new window into the aging process.
Background: Mammalian Diaphanous-related formins (Drfs) act as Rho small GTPase effectors during growth factor-induced cytoskeletal remodeling and cell division. While both p140 mDia1 (herein called Drf1) and p134 mDia2 (Drf3) have been shown to bind in vitro to activated RhoA-C, and Drf3 has...
The spindle checkpoint inhibits anaphase until all chromosomes have established bipolar attachment. Two kinetochore states trigger this checkpoint. The absence of microtubules activates the attachment response, while the inability of attached microtubules to generate tension triggers the...
The mechanism that allows a sensory neuron to extend its terminal branches along the appropriate fascicle within the CNS turns out to be the same as that which positioned the fascicle earlier on, and the gene that controls this position is the same as that which determined the neuron's identity.
We make fast, “saccadic” eye movements to view our surroundings, “voluntary” saccades when saccade targets are deliberately selected, and “stimulus-driven” saccades when a target suddenly appears. Saccades of patients with spatial neglect have been studied to identify the coordinate...
A key aspect in the structure of epithelial and neuronal cells is the maintenance of a polarized organization based on highly specific sorting machinery at the exit site of the trans Golgi network (TGN). Epithelial cells sort protein and lipid components into different sets of carriers for the...
Philosopher Daniel Dennett believes he has an evolutionary explanation for one of biology's most difficult concepts: free will. Nigel Williams reports on his latest book.
In Drosophila , the masses and sheets of adipose tissue that are distributed throughout the fly are collectively called the fat body. Like mammalian adipocytes, insect fat body cells provide the major energy reserve of the animal organism. Both cell types accumulate triacylglycerols (TAG) in...
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