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Cytoskeletal filaments are often capped at one end, regulating assembly and cellular location. The actin filament is a right-handed, two-strand long-pitch helix (1) . The ends of the two protofilaments are staggered in relation to each other, suggesting that capping could result from one protein...
Endocytosis is a dynamic process requiring a network of interacting proteins that assemble and disassemble during cargo capture and vesicle formation. A major mechanism for regulation of this process involves the reversible phosphorylation of endocytic factors (1–3) . Recently, members of a new...
Background: Cdc42, a Rho-related small GTP binding protein, plays pivotal roles in actin cytoskeletal organization, Golgi vesicular trafficking, receptor endocytosis, and cell cycle progression. However, the target/effectors mediating these cellular activities and, in particular, those...
Circadian clocks are auto-regulatory loops in which ‘clock’ gene products feedback to regulate their own expression. This explains how they keep oscillating, but how do they first get going? It appears that the transcription factor dClock not only drives the oscillation within the fruit fly's...
Background: Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit depend on activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) by the substrate adaptor proteins CDC20 and CDH1. The APC is a ubiquitin ligase composed of at least 11 subunits. The interaction of APC2 and APC11 with E2 enzymes is sufficient for...
Army ants are characterized by a complex combination of behavioral and morphological traits. Molecular data now indicate that army ant behavior has a unique evolutionary origin and has been conserved for over more than 100 million years.
Many cell signalling pathways are modulated in important ways by general cellular machineries, such as those mediating protein degradation and translocation. Two recent studies have revealed roles for such mechanisms in the Hedgehog signalling pathway in Drosophila .
In many seasonally breeding rodents, reproduction and metabolism are activated by long summer days (LD) and inhibited by short winter days (SD) (1) . After several months of SD, animals become refractory to this inhibitory photoperiod and spontaneously revert to LD-like physiology (2, 3) . The...
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