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Gem GTPase is a member of a protein family that includes Rad, Rem and Rem2. Although until recently precious little was known about the function of Gem, recent studies have revealed that Gem may influence cell morphology by antagonising the actions of the Rho GTPase effector protein ROCK I.
The products of PI 3-kinase activation, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and its immediate breakdown product PtdIns(3,4)P2, trigger physiological processes, by interacting with proteins possessing pleckstrin homology (PH) domains (1, 2) . One of the best characterized PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/PtdIns(3,4)P2 effector...
The Pak kinases are targets of the Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42, which regulate cell shape and motility (1–5) . It is increasingly apparent that part of this function is due to the effect Pak kinases have on microtubule organization and dynamics. Recently, overexpression of Xenopus Pak5 was shown...
Throughout development, a series of epithelial movements and fusions occur that collectively shape the embryo. They are dependent on coordinated reorganizations and contractions of the actin cytoskeleton within defined populations of epithelial cells. One paradigm morphogenetic movement, dorsal...
Background: Seven-transmembrane receptor (7-TMR)-G protein networks are molecular sensors of extracellular signals in all eukarya. These pathways cycle through activated (sensitized) and inhibited (desensitized) states, and, while many of the molecular components for signal activation have been...
The release of Cdc14 from the nucleolus occurs in two waves in early and late anaphase, controlled by the FEAR and MEN pathways, respectively. Two new papers report the localisation at the spindle pole body of the Cdc14 released in early anaphase and, surprisingly, show that the two pulses of...
Mammalian p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) is a highly conserved effector for the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 (1) . In lower eukaryotes, Pak1 homologs are regulated during the cell cycle by phosphorylation. Here, we show that Pak1 is phosphorylated during mitosis in mammalian fibroblasts. This...
Much of what we know about apoptosis in human cells stems from pioneering genetic studies in the nematode C. elegans (1, 2) . However, one important way in which the regulation of mammalian cell death appears to differ from that of its nematode counterpart is in the employment of TNF and TNF...
Background: To improve the existing combination therapies of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to cope with virus strains that are resistant to multiple drugs, we initiated a search for effective inhibitors of HIV integrase, the enzyme responsible for inserting the viral...
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