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Forelimbs and hindlimbs are, clearly, quite different, and it has long been appreciated that their differences are assigned early in development; the genetic basis of these differences has been more mysterious, however. Recent work has now shown that the homeobox gene Pitx1 imparts identity to...
The tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the Fas receptor recruit complexes formed by the interactions between RIP kinase, TRADD, FADD and RAIDD – adaptor proteins that contain death domains – which in turn recruit other proteins to initiate signaling (1–5) . To identify proteins...
Spontaneous signaling from death-domain-containing receptors can result in inappropriate cell death. An inhibitory protein has recently been identified, called silencer of death domains (SODD), that binds to the death domain of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, thereby negatively regulating...
Recently determined structures have linked histidine kinases with class II topoisomerases, the DNA repair enzyme MutL and the molecular chaperone Hsp90. This surprising finding may foreshadow a shift in our understanding of energy coupling mechanisms in signal transduction networks.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint protein Rad9 is required for transient cell-cycle arrest and transcriptional induction of DNA-repair genes in response to DNA damage (1) . It contains a carboxy-terminal tandem repeat of the BRCT (BRCA1 carboxyl terminus) motif, a motif that is also found...
Background: Fyn and c-Src are two of the most widely expressed Src-family kinases. Both are strongly implicated in the control of cytoskeletal organization and in the generation of integrin-dependent signalling responses in fibroblasts. These proteins are representative of a large family of...
Apoptosis is characterized morphologically by condensation and fragmentationof nuclei and cells and biochemically by fragmentation of chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units (1) . CAD, also known as CPAN or DFF-40, is a DNase that can be activated by caspases (2–6) . CAD is complexed with its...
Background: The protein kinase C (PKC) family has been implicated in the control of many cellular functions. Although PKC isotypes are characterized by their allosteric activation, phosphorylation also plays a key role in controlling activity. In classical PKC isotypes, one of the three critical...
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