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To date, more than 100 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been identified. In the past 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in HPVs because of their potential role in the pathogenesis of malignant tumors. HPV infections are known to affect predominantly adult, sexually active age...
Several neurotransmitters, in particular serotonin (5-HT), have demonstrated multiple functions during early development and mid-gestational craniofacial morphogenesis. Early studies indicated that 5-HT is present in the oocyte, where it appears to function as a regulator of cell cleavage. Later,...
Cancrum oris (Noma) is a devastating infectious disease which destroys the soft and hard tissues of the oral and para-oral structures. The dehumanizing oro-facial gangrenous lesion affects predominantly children ages 2 to 16 years, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the estimated frequency...
Signal processing is the sine qua non of embryogenesis. At its core, any single signal transduction pathway may be understood as classic Information Theory, adapted as an open system such that, because of networking, the "receiver" is presented with more information than was initially signaled by...