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Europe, over the past two decades, has seen many innovations in the field of corrections, particularly new sanctions that are becoming increasingly popular as alternatives to imprisonment, such as community service. Innovative approaches have also been tested in the field of drug treatment,...
In 1981, the Federal Judicial Center proposed guidelines for balancing risks of experimentation against their supposed benefits. The ethical rules were supposed to be within the scope of American legal and constitutional justification. These guidelines would not fulfill the same criterion in...
Studies on the effectiveness of correctional treatment in prison often strive for a high internal validity but neglect aspects of substantiation of content. This study tries to reach high internal validity and to treat the question of how much effectiveness can be expected in prison at all....
This article lays out five standards for judging the importance of randomized field trials in estimating the relative effects of new programs and new variations on existing programs. These standards include contemporary evaluation policy, the historical development of trials in diverse sciences,...
In this article, the authors consider various approaches to the evaluation of criminal justice interventions in the area of domestic violence. Evaluations have been conducted on a range of interventions, but this article focuses particularly on evaluations of arrest and programs for violent...
Experiments have an important part to play in developing evidence-based policy and practice in criminal justice. They need, however, to be construed in realist terms if valid conclusions are to be drawn. The precise design of an experiment needs also to be tailored to the level of program theory...
In theory, experimental designs provide the most reliable method to establish a relationship between interventions and outcomes. However, in practice, randomized experiments have remained a much less common choice for criminal justice evaluators than have nonexperimental methods. This article...
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