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Anaesthesia for paediatric bronchoscopy requires special equipment and a sound knowledge of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the paediatric airway, which determine key differences between paediatric and adult bronchoscopy. Whenever possible it should be performed in a tertiary referral...
Persistent hypoxia, despite adequate oxygen therapy, is common in patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Before attempting advanced support for ALI/ARDS, one must look for and treat relatively readily reversible conditions. These conditions...
Thoracotomy is widely recognized as being one of the most painful surgical procedures. Acute post-thoracotomy pain is aggravated by the constant movement of breathing. However, vigorous physiotherapy and incentive spirometry are encouraged to prevent atelectasis and secretion retention. Pain...
Spinal anaesthesia is now practised widely. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review; it will focus on some new developments and techniques.
The heart has the highest oxygen consumption per tissue mass of all human organs. The resting coronary blood flow is ∼250 ml min −1 (0.8 ml min −1 g −1 of heart muscle); this represents 5% of cardiac output. 1 Ischaemia results when oxygen demand outstrips supply.
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI, also called catheter-related sepsis) is defined as the presence of bacteraemia originating from an i.v. catheter. It is one of the most frequent, lethal and costly complications of central venous catheterization. It is also the most common cause of...
Rapid sequence induction (RSI) is an established method of inducing anaesthesia in patients who are at risk of aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs. It involves loss of consciousness during cricoid pressure followed by intubation without face mask ventilation. The aim is to intubate the...
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