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The purpose of this paper is to relate the mechanical behaviors of seasonal lake and river ice to their grain structures. It is shown that for the lake ice the grain structure, and resulting mechanical properties, vary through the thickness of the ice and depend on the proximity to the shores and...
Under specific conditions, natural convective heat transfer in the crushed-rock embankment and revetment embankment in cold regions is significant, and sometimes is the dominant mode of heat transfer during winter months. To conveniently examine the onset of the natural convection cooling effect,...