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Instrumentation and methods for measuring snow properties are compared in an investigation of millimeter- to meter-scale stratigraphy in a snowpack not influenced by topography, vegetation, or a warm and variable ground surface. Field measurements were conducted within a 20×20×2 m plot at Pika...
We present evidence that slab avalanching is a chaotic process. We studied a set of 8062 avalanches running on more than 140 paths at Mammoth Mountain, CA between November 1982 and May 2002. Cumulative crown size distributions over the entire mountain and on individual paths are scale invariant...
Snow stratigraphy and changes in snow hardness are amongst the most important parameters in the study of snow. In seven snow pits, three types of hardness tests were performed: these were hand, ram and micro penetrometer tests. The stratigraphy, in terms of layers and layer boundaries, was...
Avalanche hazard zones in Switzerland are defined by the frequency and the impact pressure of a potential avalanche event. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately estimate the release frequency and, related to the frequency, the release area for a specific avalanche track. In order to improve...
A numerical avalanche prediction scheme offering prediction rates greater than 70% is presented for the Bear Pass highway operation, British Columbia. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical discriminant analysis are used to identify the principal variables that allow discrimination...
This paper describes a nearest neighbours model used operationally for avalanche forecasting in Scotland. Results are presented as contingency tables and in terms of a range of categorical statistics suggesting that the model performs well in comparison with other models, although avalanche...
MR microscopy was designed to visualize and quantify the three-dimensional structure of snowpack and tested on snow and ice samples. We studied the structure of four types of packed ice particles: ice spheres, large rounded polycrystals, small rounded monocrystals, and depth hoar. Because the...
At the Montana State University Avalanche Research Site, instrumentation has been installed to measure temperatures, flow depth, and velocities during an avalanche. Five thermocouples have been installed along a 30-m section of the avalanche running surface. Temperature time histories were...
Avalanche rescue beacons are electronic transmitter–receiver devices designed to locate avalanche victims in avalanche debris. They have become standard equipment for the winter backcountry traveler. With the appearance of digital beacons or transceivers and the growing variety of beacons, the...
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