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The role of fracture and spalling in ice-structure interaction is described. The most likely regions in which fractures will be initiated from flaws are shear zones with low confining pressure and tensile zones. Flaws of different lengths and of different locations are investigated numerically in...
The data on which a lake freezes over has significance for the safety of winter lake recreation, for winterkill of fish and for the water quality of ice-covered lakes. This paper describes the development and application of a new algorithm to predict the date of ice formation on a lake. It uses a...
The factors involved in the use of urea foam to maintain permafrost are considered. A survey of the literature on forming and applying urea foams has been made. A simplified analysis of urea foam conductivity in the moisture content range from 0 to 500% is presented. A program for long-term field...
To investigate the strength and the deformation behaviour of crushed ice, triaxial tests were performed. Crushed ice is formed during ice-structure interaction by extensive damage of polycrystalline ice near the structure. The effects of the confining pressure and the rate of loading are studied....