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Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a genetically heterogeneous developmental field defect in which midline cleavage of the forebrain and craniofacial structures is impaired. Based on the analysis of HPE patients with chromosome rearrangements, at least six loci for the disorder have been assigned. The...
Genetic disorders characterized by congenital patellar aplasia or hypoplasia belong to a clinically diverse and genetically heterogeneous group of lower limb malformations. Patella development involves different molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating dorso-ventral patterning, cartilage and...
Recent developments in molecular biology have markedly speeded the processes involved in determining the molecular etiology of human Mendelian disorders. Nowhere are these changes more evident than in the field that is variously termed molecular dysmorphology, human morphogenesis, or human...
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is commonly diagnosed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with commercial probes. The chromosomal breakpoints and deletion size are subsequently characterized by short tandem repeat (STR) segregation tests or by further FISH probes. Recently, a multiplex...
The great majority of patients with type III hyperlipidemia (type III HLP) are homozygous for the ॉ2 allele of the APOE gene. However, only about 10% of ॉ2 homozygotes develop type III HLP, and it has been proposed that additional genetic factors are required for the development of the...
With philatelic illustrations, we review sickle cell anemia, some of the common hemoglobinopathies, and their relevance to malaria. We discuss the mechanism by which hemoglobinopathies arise, the progress made with pre-natal screening, as well as innovative therapies. We review recent...
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