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Electroplated tin deposits are used as etch resists during the processing of printed circuit boards. The tin coating protects the copper tracks during etching but is subsequently removed (stripped) to expose the defined copper circuitry. The commonly used stripping solutions are based on nitric...
A new generation of electroless nickel immersion gold process has been developed that is targeted to solve the “Black Nickel issue”. The development involved the understanding of the details of the nanostructure of electroless nickel, the interface between Ni and Au, Ni and solder, and the...
The evolution of digital electronic systems to ever‐faster pulse rise times has placed increased demands on printed wiring board (PWB) materials. Signal loss associated with dielectric materials has driven development and commercialization of cost‐effective low loss laminate materials. In...
This paper focuses on the renewed interest in the use of condensation, or vapour‐phase, soldering in lead‐free surface mount assembly soldering and notes also the corresponding legislation, which will preclude the use of lead‐based solders in most applications by 2006. The process is once...
Insoluble and therefore oxygen developing anodes tend to destroy additives in plating baths. With a modified mixed metal oxide coated anode, it is possible to reduce the consumption of additives in copper electrolytes and to reduce the formation of Sn 4+ in acid tin electrolytes. Favourable...
Printed circut boards (PCBs) have diminished in size and, simultaneously, their circuit densities have increased. Conventional multi‐layered PCBs have a limitation to higher packaging densities. This paper introduces a new copper electroplating formula that is able to fill vias and through...
This paper presents a snapshot of the status of the UK printed circuit board (PCB) industry in 2003. Comparisons are made with a similar study from 1997. Data are presented concerning employment and turnover within the industry, the number of manufacturing sites engaged in PCB manufacture and...
The trend of electronic products toward lighter, thinner, and faster transmission is challenging the printed circuit board industry to incorporate high density interconnection technology (such as build‐up and semi‐additive processes). Micro stacked via is one technology utilized to produce...
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