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Measurement of carcinogen DNA adducts in blood has been used as a surrogate for the target lung tissue. We aimed to examine whether genetic polymorphisms in several metabolic pathway genes modify the relation between DNA adducts in target lung and blood. One hundred and thirty-five early-stage...
Methylating agents are widely distributed environmental carcinogens. Moreover, they are being used in cancer chemotherapy. The primary target of methylating agents is DNA, and therefore, DNA repair is the first-line barrier in defense against their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Methylating...
Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, nitric oxide (NO) production and migration of RAW264.7 macrophages by coculture with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells or the addition of conditioned medium derived from MDA-MB-231 cells (MDA-CM) was identified. Increased iNOS/NO...
Pharmacological inhibitors of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) type I receptor (ALK5) have shown promise in blocking growth of xenotransplanted cancer cell lines but the effect on a multistage cancer model is not known. To test this, we treated mouse skin with SB431542 (SB), a...
Estrogenic procarcinogenic effects of piceatannol (PIC) contrast reports about anticarcinogenic activities of PIC. To explain this contradiction, we investigated PIC in estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and elucidated those cellular mechanisms that correlated with the observed cell...
Tamoxifen is the most commonly prescribed therapy for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)α-positive breast tumors. Tumor resistance to tamoxifen remains a serious clinical problem especially in patients with tumors that also overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Current...
Endoglin is a coreceptor for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that acts as a suppressor of malignancy during mouse skin carcinogenesis. Because in this model system H-Ras activation drives tumor initiation and progression, we have assessed the effects of endoglin on the expression of H-Ras...
Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes commonly occurs in human cancers via increasing DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications at gene promoters. However, little is known about how pathogenic environmental factors contribute to cancer development by affecting epigenetic...
Germline mutations in many of the genes that are involved in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) are associated with various human genetic disorders and cancer. RAD51 and RAD51 paralogs are important for HR and in the maintenance of genome stability....
Cucurbitacin E (CuE, α-elaterin), a tetracyclic triterpenes compound from folk traditional Chinese medicine plants, has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth, inflammatory response and bilirubin–albumin binding. However, the effects of CuE on tumor angiogenesis and its potential molecular...
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