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Efficient DNA repair mechanisms comprise a critical component in the protection against human cancer, as indicated by the high predisposition to cancer of individuals with germ-line mutations in DNA repair genes. This includes biallelic germ-line mutations in the MUTYH gene, encoding a DNA...
There is growing concern that air pollution exposure increases the risk of lung cancer. The mechanism of action is related to particle-induced oxidative stress and oxidation of DNA. Humans exposed to urban air with vehicle emissions have elevated levels of oxidized guanine bases in blood cells...
The heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1) represents the key mediator of hypoxia response. HIF-1 controls numerous genes of pivotal importance for cellular metabolism, angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation and inhibition of apoptosis. HIF-1 overexpression and...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were viewed for a long time as unavoidable by-products of normal cell catabolism. This view has recently changed and it is now apparent that ROS generation is a tightly regulated process that plays a central role in cell signaling. Thus, it is known that regulated...
Tumor metastasis is attributed not only to the abnormalities of cancer cells, but also to changes induced by the interaction of cancer cells and surrounding cells/tissues. The host immune response to cancer cells may contribute to an increased incidence of tumor metastasis. Surgical removal of...
Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth, metastasis, arteriosclerosis as well as embryonic development and wound healing. Its process is dependent on cell proliferation, migration and capillary tube formation in endothelia cells (ECs). High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as...
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) are known to contribute as pathogenic factors to the development of chronic progressive diseases at various stages. The present review discusses the role of oxidative stress in chemically induced cancer development and progression. Reactive...
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