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Mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation has been reported to reduce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore may be neuroprotective. We reported previously that the mitochondrial poison rotenone enhanced currents evoked by N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) by a ROS-dependent...
Mast cells are located in the central nervous system (CNS) of many mammals and stress induces their degranulation. We postulated that mast cells are associated with wakefulness and stimulatory tone in the CNS, as reflected by spontaneous motor activity. Because stress also precipitates...
It has been reported that intracerebroventricular injection of a μ receptor antagonist blocked 2 but not 100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA)-produced analgesia in an uninjured animal model. Because persistent pain changes neural response to external stimulation, we hypothesized that the mechanisms of...
Microglial activation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, and suppression of microglial activation prevents the progression of neurodegeneration. Rifampicin, a bacteriocidal antibiotic, induces immunosuppression. We hypothesized that rifampicin might be...
Recently, BACE1 expression was shown to be regulated by microRNAs, small endogenous RNA molecules that regulate protein expression through sequence-specific interaction with messenger RNA. Here, we showed that microRNA-29c (miR-29c), a miRNA that is enriched in the brain and highly expressed in...
Humans have the ability to produce an internal reproduction of a specific motor action without any overt motor output. Recent findings show that the processes underlying motor imagery are similar to those active during motor execution and both share common neural substrates. This suggests that...
The enhanced carotid body (CB) chemosensory response to hypoxia induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been attributed to oxidative stress, which is expected to increase the expression of chemosensory modulators including chemoexcitatory pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CB....
Decision making is commonly conceived to reflect the interplay of mutually antagonistic systems: executive processes must inhibit affective information to make adaptive choices. Consistent with this interpretation, prior studies have shown that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is...
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