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BACKGROUND: Berberine, a plant alkaloid, is found in some herbal teas and health‐related products. It is a component of goldenseal, an herbal supplement. Berberine chloride dihydrate (BCD) was evaluated for developmental toxicity in rats and mice.METHODS: Berberine chloride dihydrate was...
BACKGROUND: As previously shown, Paraquat (PQ) treatments of Xenopus developing embryos mainly induce a characteristic developmental alteration we named “abnormal tail flexure.” PQ oxidative activity has been indicated as the cause of this malformation. Since PQ evokes reactive oxygen species...
BACKGROUND: In pregnant women, antiretroviral drugs improve maternal health and reduce vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to the infant. However, few nonclinical studies have examined the potential for adverse drug interactions. METHODS: On gestational days (GD) 6–16, mice...
BACKGROUND: The United States Surgeon General declared 2005 as the “Year of Healthy Child.” To improve the health of all children, we need to start before pregnancy, with their mothers. Unfortunately, protein deficiency in the diets of poor pregnant mothers in developing countries is...
BACKGROUND: Although valproic acid (VPA) is used extensively for treating various kinds of epilepsies, it is well known that it causes neural tube and skeletal defects in both humans and animals. The amide and urea derivatives of the tetramethylcylcopropyl VPA analogue,...
BACKGROUND: The principal Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) hydroxylated metabolite excreted in milk is Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) classified in group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Human exposure to AFM1 is due to the consumption of contaminated dairy products and partly to endogenous...
BACKGROUND: Chromium(III) picolinate, (Cr(pic)3), is a widely marketed dietary supplement. However, Cr(pic)3 has been associated with oxidative damage to DNA in rats and mutations and DNA fragmentation in cell cultures. In isolated case reports, Cr(pic)3 supplementation has been said to cause...
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