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Players in a Prisoner's Dilemma are modeled as learning automata that receive feedback from the environment and coadaptively adjust their strategies. Theory and simulations show the coevolutionary dynamics of the reward-inaction and reward-penalty schemes. The players are assumed to be physically...
The iterated prisoner's dilemma game has been used extensively in the study of the evolution of cooperative behaviours in social and biological systems. The concept of evolutionary stability provides a useful tool to analyse strategies for playing the game. Most results on evolutionary stability,...
It is shown that DNA sequences can be decomposed into smaller units much the same as texts can be decomposed into syllables, words, or groups of words. Those smaller units (modules) are extracted from DNA sequences according to statistical criteria. Tests with sequences of known modular structure...
The molecular level of the functional structure of the contractile apparatus of cross-striated muscle has been mapped out almost minutely. Most authors accept the basic principles of the theory of sliding filaments and the theory of operation of molecular generators of force which, of course, are...