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Catalytic conversion of un-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (13.8 mg KOH/g) to biodiesel was studied in ionic liquids (ILs) with metal chlorides. Several commercial ILs were used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid. It was found that 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate...
Nursery leachates usually contain high concentrations of nitrates, phosphorus and potassium, so discharging them into the environment often causes pollution. Single-stage or two-stage horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSCW) filled with different substrates were designed to...
Highlights ▸ Rice straw is an abundant lignocellulosic material for ethanol production. ▸ Co-culture is better than monoculture for ethanol production. ▸ Overall ethanol yield is increased by using concentrated rice straw hydrolysate.
The feasibility of replacing yeast extract (YE) by corn steep liquor (CSL), a low cost nutrient source, for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was investigated. About 32% more ethanol (1.7 g L −1 ) was produced with 20 g L −1 CSL media in 250-mL bottle...
In this work, the process for ethyl ester production is studied using refined sunflower oil, and NaOH, KOH, CH 3 ONa, and CH 3 OK, as catalysts. In all cases, the reaction is carried out in a single reaction step. The best conversion is obtained when the catalyst is either sodium methoxide or...
The by-product of sugar refinery—waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full...
The effects of biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) and chemical surfactant Triton X-100 on the production of cellulases and xylanase from Penicillium expansum ( P. expansum ) in untreated, acid- and alkali-pretreated wheat straw submerged fermentations were studied, and the influences on the activity...
In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried...
Graphical abstract Evaluation of the influence of activated carbon and calcium chloride, at intermediates sodium alginate concentrations, on the absorbance reduction of winery wastewaters at: (a) 280 nm; (b) 465 nm; (c) 530 nm; (d) 665 nm after 24 h.
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