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Abstract Oxidative stress in cells and tissues can occur during pathophysiological developments, e.g., during inflammatory and allergic diseases or during ischemic or toxic and hyperglycemic conditions via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, ROS can be generated by...
Abstract Turmerin is a protein from Turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) with a relative molecular mass of 14 kDa. The protein inhibits the enzymatic activity and neutralises the pharmacological properties, such as cytotoxicity, oedema and myotoxicity of multitoxic phospholipase A 2 (NV-PLA 2 ) of cobra...
Abstract To respond adequately to oxidative stress, mammalian cells elicit rapid and tightly controlled changes in gene expression patterns. Besides alterations in the subsets of transcribed genes, two posttranscriptional processes prominently influence the oxidant-triggered gene expression...
Abstract Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are important downstream targets of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and crucial regulators of cell fate. This function of FoxOs relies on their ability to control diverse cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis,...
Abstract Aging at the molecular level is characterized by the progressive accumulation of molecular damage. The sources of damage act randomly through environmental and metabolically generated free radicals, through spontaneous errors in biochemical reactions, and through nutritional components....
Abstract Females live longer than males. We have shown that the higher levels of estrogens in females protect them against aging, by up-regulating the expression of antioxidant, longevity-related genes, such as that of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Mn-superoxide dismutase...
Abstract Protein degradation is a physiological process required to maintain cellular functions. There are distinct proteolytic systems for different physiological tasks under changing environmental and pathophysiological conditions. The proteasome is responsible for the removal of oxidatively...
Abstract The klotho gene functions as an aging-suppressor gene that extends life span when overexpressed and accelerates aging-like phenotypes when disrupted in mice. The klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein that binds to multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors and...
Abstract Fine-tuning of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells participates in blood glucose homeostasis. Defects in this process can lead to chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Several proteins controlling insulin exocytosis have been identified, but the mechanisms regulating their...
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