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Abstract T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering by antigens activates a sophisticated intracellular signaling network leading to transcriptional activation, proliferation and differentiation of T cells. These events ultimately culminate in adaptive immune responses. Over recent years it has become...
Abstract Bacteria encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of the aerobic life or as an oxidative burst of activated neutrophils during infections. In addition, bacteria are exposed to other redox-active compounds, including hypochloric acid (HOCl) and reactive electrophilic...
Abstract Mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, particularly of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. A number of dedicated enzymes regulate the conversion and consumption of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in the intermembrane space and the matrix of...
Abstract A few small-molecule oxidants, most notably hydrogen peroxide, can act as messengers in signal transduction. They trigger so-called ‘thiol switches’, cysteine residues that are reversibly oxidized to transiently change the functional properties of their host proteins. The...
Abstract Misfolded and incorrectly assembled proteins in the secretory pathway are eliminated by ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation in a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Retrotranslocation of diverse substrates including misfolded proteins and viruses occurs through...
Abstract The spatiotemporal modification of specific cysteinyl residues in proteins has emerged as a novel concept in signal transduction. Such modifications alter the redox state of the cysteinyl thiol group, with implications for the structure and biological function of the protein. Regulatory...
Abstract In photosynthesizing chloroplasts, rapidly changing energy input, intermediate generation of strong reductants as well as oxidants and multiple participating physicochemical processes and pathways, call for efficient regulation. Coupling redox information to protein function via thiol...
Abstract Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin family proteins that can either regulate the thiol redox state of proteins or are linked to iron metabolism because of their ability to incorporate iron-sulfur (2Fe–2S) clusters. Here we review recent research on a land...
Abstract Malaria and African trypanosomiasis are tropical diseases caused by the protozoa Plasmodium and Trypanosoma, respectively. The parasites undergo complex life cycles in the mammalian host and insect vector, during which they are exposed to oxidative and nitrosative challenges induced by...
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