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Abstract Sphingolipids are not only essential components of cellular membranes but also function as intracellular and extracellular mediators that regulate important physiological cellular processes including cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and immune...
Abstract Viruses exploit membranes and their components such as sphingolipids in all steps of their life cycle including attachment and membrane fusion, intracellular transport, replication, protein sorting and budding. Examples for sphingolipid-dependent virus entry are found for: human...
Abstract Both of the sphingosine kinase (SK) subtypes SK-1 and SK-2 catalyze the production of the bioactive lipid molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). However, the subtype-specific cellular functions are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the cellular function of SK-2 in primary...
Abstract The prevailing mechanisms of action of traditional chemotherapeutic agents have been challenged by sphingolipid cancer research. Many studies have shown that ceramide generation in response to cytotoxic agents is central to tumor cell death. Ceramide can be generated either via...
Abstract Acid sphingomyelinase and ceramide have previously been shown to play a central role in infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium avium . Recent studies have...
Abstract Host T cell activation, a key step in obtaining adaptive immunity against pathogens, is initiated by the binding of the T cell receptor to a foreign antigenic peptide presented by the major histocompatibility complex on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell and, consequently,...
Abstract FTY720 (fingolimod) is, after its phosphorylation by sphingosine kinase (SPHK) 2, a potent, non-selective sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist. FTY720 has been shown to reduce the nociceptive behavior in the paclitaxel model for chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain through...
Abstract The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the most important endogenous cardiovascular protective markers. HDL is an attractive target in the search for new pharmaceutical therapies and in the prevention of cardiovascular events. Some of HDL’s anti-atherogenic properties are related...
Abstract Anemia and hemorrhagic shock are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and transfusion of human blood products is the ideal treatment for these conditions. As human erythrocytes age during storage in blood banks they undergo many biochemical and structural changes, termed...
Abstract Despite the therapeutic potential of sphingolipids, the ability to develop this class of compounds as active pharmaceutical ingredients has been hampered by issues of solubility and delivery. Beyond these technical hurdles, significant challenges in completing the necessary preclinical...
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