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In yeast, the activators of mRNA decapping, Pat1, Lsm1 and Dhh1, accumulate in processing bodies (P bodies) together with other proteins of the 5′-3′-deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay pathway. The Pat1 protein is of particular interest because it functions in the opposing processes of mRNA...
Rit is a novel member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that regulates signaling pathways controlling cellular fate determination. Constitutively activated mutants of Rit induce terminal differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC6) cells resulting in a sympathetic neuron-like...
Alpha-enolase is a key glycolytic enzyme that plays a functional role in several physiological processes depending on the cellular localization. The enzyme is mainly localized in the cytoplasm whereas an alternative translated form, named MBP-1, is predominantly nuclear. The MBP-1 protein has...
The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) system plays a key role in energy production, the generation of free radicals, and apoptosis. A lack of cellular energy, excessive radical production, and dysregulated apoptosis are found alone or in combination in most human diseases,...
The D2 and D3 dopamine receptor subtypes are structurally homologous and couple to the same signal transduction pathways. Nevertheless, their evolutionary conservation suggests that the two subtypes might exhibit unique signaling characteristics. We previously determined that D3 but not D2S...
Smad proteins are the major signal transducers for the Transforming Growth Factor superfamily of cytokines and their serine/threonine kinase receptors. Smads mediate the signal from the membrane into the nucleus. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 stimulates phosphorylation of Smad1, which interacts...
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an isoform of prostaglandin H synthase induced by hypoxia and has been implicated in the growth and progression of a variety of human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes in cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 )-induced...
Both estrogen receptors (ER) alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are localized in the nucleus, plasma membrane, and mitochondria, where they mediate the different physiological effects of estrogens. It has been observed that the relative subcellular localization of ERs is altered in several cancer...
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