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Metabolic conversion of vitamin A (retinol) into retinoic acid (RA) controls numerous physiological processes. 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, is a high affinity ligand for retinoid X receptor (RXR) and also activates retinoic acid receptor (RAR). Despite the...
As the promiscuous partner of heterodimeric associations, retinoid X receptors (RXRs) play a key role within the Nuclear Receptor (NR) superfamily. Some of the heterodimers (PPAR/RXR, LXR/RXR, FXR/RXR) are “permissive” as they become transcriptionally active in the sole presence of either an...
The vitamin A (retinol) metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), is a signaling molecule that plays key roles in the development of the body plan and induces the differentiation of many types of cells. In this review the physiological and pathophysiological roles of retinoids (retinol and...
Retinoic acid (RA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that controls growth and development. The first step of RA synthesis is controlled by enzymes of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) families that catalyze oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde. The...
In this review a discussion of the usual procedures used to synthesize retinoids is followed by an overview of the structure–activity relationships of these molecules. The discussion is then focused on the role and impact of retinoids on metabolic disorders with a particular emphasis on...
The liver is the most important tissue site in the body for uptake of postprandial retinoid, as well as for retinoid storage. Within the liver, both hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are importantly involved in retinoid metabolism. Hepatocytes play an indispensable role in uptake and...
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for humans and is converted to the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, and to the hormone, retinoic acid. Vitamin A in animal-derived foods is found as long chain acyl esters of retinol and these are digested to free fatty acids and retinol before uptake by the...
A major goal in vision research over the past few decades has been to understand the molecular details of retinoid processing within the retinoid (visual) cycle. This includes the consequences of side reactions that result from delayed all- trans -retinal clearance and condensation with...
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