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Protection from extinction of conditioned fear has been demonstrated when a conditioned inhibitor of fear is presented during extinction treatment. The present study assessed if similar results could be obtained during the analogous habituation of unconditioned fear. The neophobic response...
Rats were trained on mixed-fixed-interval (FI) schedules, with component FIs of 30 and 60 s. The probability of reinforcement according to FI 30 s varied between conditions, across values of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9. When response rate in the 60 s intervals was measured, separate response...
To study concept formation based on relations, adults were taught and tested on complex discriminations involving figures that varied in colors, forms, and orientations. In Experiment 1, participants learned to select figures with values A1 and B1 or values B1 and C1; thereafter, they...
A common procedure for studying the ability of animals to time is the peak procedure. With the peak procedure, animals are first trained on a fixed interval schedule (i.e., 30 s). After the animals have been well trained on the fixed interval schedule, probe trials are introduced. On probe...
The ‘chick-a-dee’ call, common to all members of the genus Poecile , is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these...
We examined whether Java sparrows use imagery of auditory stimuli (imagery is a subject's mental representation of a stimulus by which the subject's behaviour may be governed under stimulus control even in the absence of the physical stimulus). Three types of ascending tone sequences were used....
Time-place learning based on food association was investigated in eight food-restricted Nile tilapias. Each fish was individually housed for 10 days in an experimental tank for adjustments to laboratory conditions, and fed daily in excess. Feeding was then interrupted for 17 days. Training was...
The human ability to perform transitive inference (TI) is an area of debate from a neurocognitive standpoint. Some studies emphasize a stimulus driven medial-temporal lobe process (Preston, A.R., Shrager, Y., Dudukovic, N.M., Gabrieli, J.D., 2004. Hippocampal contribution to the novel use of...
Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a response and a reinforcer (i.e., response–reinforcer relation) governs response rates and the relation between a stimulus and a reinforcer (i.e., stimulus–reinforcer relation) governs resistance to change. The present experiments...
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