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Extracorporeal dialysis was first performed in 1943 and has become a routine for End Stage Renal Patients from the early sixties. In the last 30 years researchers have focused on biocompatibility of artificial materials and optimisation of removal of uremic toxins by the membrane as in the long...
Artificial cells are being actively investigated for use in the replacement of cell and organ functions, especially related to metabolic functions. The earliest routine clinical use of artificial cells is in the form of coated activated charcoal for hemoperfusion. Implantation of encapsulated...
Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases....
In type 1 diabetes an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion requires exogenous insulin supply to guarantee the patient's life avoiding ketoacidotic coma and to prevent the chronic complications of diabetes. In order to obtain a more physiological replacement therapy different approaches have...
Analogous to the artificial kidney there is a need for an effective and safe liver support system to bridge patients with hepatic failure to liver transplantation or own liver regeneration. An overview is given of the biological and non‐‐‐biological systems used in clinical practice in the...
The activation of a T cell has been shown to require two signals via molecules present on professional antigen presenting cells: signal 1, via a peptide///MHC complex, and signal 2, via a costimulatory molecule. Here, the role of three costimulatory molecules in the activation of T cells was...
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