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In recent years, small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified as important regulators of gene expression in bacteria. Most sRNAs are encoded from intergenic regions and are only expressed under highly specific growth conditions. In Staphylococcus aureus , the alternative sigma factor, σ B , is known...
Lipopolysaccharides also called endotoxins are an integral component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. When released from the bacterial surface, they interact with a host immune system, triggering excessive inflammatory response. Lipid A is the biologically most active part of...
Spiroplasmas are bacteria in the Class Mollicutes that are frequently associated with insects and/or plants. Here, we describe the ultrastructure, localization, and occurrence of apparent commensal/symbiotic spiroplasma-like organisms (SLOs) in the midgut and hindgut of five leafhopper species...
A hyperthermophilic heterotrophic archaeon (strain WB1) was isolated from a thermal pool in the Washburn hot spring group of Yellowstone National Park, USA. WB1 is a coccus, 0.6–1.2 μm in diameter, with a tetragonal S-layer, vacuoles, and occasional stalk-like protrusions. Growth is optimal at...
A chromium (Cr)-resistant bacterium isolated from soil containing 6,000 mg/kg of Cr was identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Delftia , and designated as JD2. Growth of JD2 was accompanied with reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in liquid medium initially containing 100 mg/L Cr(VI),...
The adaptation of Rhodocccus erythropolis SQ1 to energy and carbon starvation was investigated in terms of both the capacity to survive starvation and the contribution of a nutrient-induced stationary phase to cross-protection to other types of environmental stress. It was found that R....
The size and density of microbial cells determine the time that pathogens can remain airborne and thus, their potential to infect by the respiratory route. We determined the density and size distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei cells in comparison with other Burkholderia species, including...
Vibrio alginolyticus is a gram-negative bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in marine animals as well as humans. Here, we further characterized a cell death mechanism caused by this bacterium in several mammalian cell lines. The T3SS of V. alginolyticus killed HeLa...
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