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When determining how many items to include on a criterion-referenced test, practitioners must re solve various nonstatistical issues before a par ticular solution can be applied. A fundamental problem is deciding which of three true scores should be used. The first is based on the prob ability...
It has sometimes been assumed that validity of criterion-referenced tests is guaranteed by the de finition of the domain and the process used to gen erate items. These are important considerations for content validity. It is argued that the proper focus for content validity is on the items of a...
A criterion-referenced test can be viewed as testing either a continuous or a binary variable, and the scores on a test can be used as measurements of the variable or to make decisions (e.g., pass or fail). Recent work on the reliability of criterion-refer enced tests has focused on the use of...
This paper provides a review of a class of prob abilistic models that has been developed for use in the assessment of trait or competency acquisition. Consideration is given to the relative merits and limitations of this class of state models, under which trait acquisition is conceived as being...
Previous methodological reviews and the contro versy regarding the adequacy of standard-setting technology are summarized. The judgmental nature of all standard-setting methods is examined, and the debate about whether fallible standards are better than none is recast in the context of three...
The problem of mastery decisions and optimizing cutoff scores on criterion-referenced tests is con sidered. This problem can be formalized as an (em pirical) Bayes problem with decisions rules of a monotone shape. Next, the derivation of optimal cutoff scores for threshold, linear, and normal...
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