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A new cyclic model of a class of chemical pumps affected by the irreversibility of mass transfer is set up. With the help of optimal control theory, the optimal cyclic configuration of the chemical pumps is determined and its fundamental optimal relation is derived. Other optimal performances of...
Oversized equipment is one of the key factors for poor energy performance of commercial buildings in Hong Kong. Similar situations exist also in many buildings in different parts of the world. The use of realistic design criteria has been identified as an effective method to reduce the equipment...
In 1995, Jordan's annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were approximately 13.8×10 6 tonnes, of which fossil-fuel combustion contributed more than 85%. It is likely that CO 2 emissions, from energy operations, will rise to about 20×10 6 tonnes in the year 2010, when the energy consumption...
Too often, in the last 50 years, the energy-thrift lessons of vernacular architecture have been forgotten or ignored. In the Middle East, many recently-designed commercial buildings, with large areas of glazing, incur excessively high electricity-demands to provide energy for the required...
There is an increasing drive towards low energy architecture and developing buildings that work with the climate rather than in spite of it. One technology in the area of low energy building design is that of utilising building thermal mass and/or active thermal storage systems. Essentially the...
The temperature drop of a gas divided by its pressure drop under constant enthalpy conditions is called the Joule–Thomson coefficient (JTC) of the gas. The JTC of an ideal gas is equal to zero since its enthalpy depends on only temperature. On the other hand, this is only true for classical...
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