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When dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce are fermented to produce ethanol, detoxification is required to make the hydrolysates fermentable at reasonable rates. Treatment with alkali, usually by overliming, is one of the most efficient approaches. Several nutrients, such as ammonium and...
Pretreatment of Douglas-fir by steam explosion produces a substrate containing approx 43% lignin. Two strategies were investigated for reducing the effect of this residual lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: mild alkali extraction and protein addition. Extraction with cold 1% NaOH...
Spectroscopic characterization of both untreated and treated material is being performed in order to determine changes in the biomass and the effects of pretreatment on crystallinity, lignin content, selected chemical bonds, and depolymerization of hemicellulose and lignin. The methods used are...
A technique for the removal of acetic acid from an actual pretreated corn stover hydrolysate was investigated. A powdered form of activated carbon previously shown to be effective in the removal of acetic acid from a synthetic hydrolysate was utilized. The method proved to be effective at...
The application of Fenton’s reaction to enhance the fermentability of prehydrolysates obtained from steam explosion pretreatment of poplar biomass was studied. Reaction conditions of temperature and H 2 O 2 and Fe(II) concentrations were studied. The fermentability of prehydrolysate treated by...
The water-soluble (WS) portion obtained by supercritical water treatment of lignocellulosics was studied for its fermentability to ethanol. A fermentation test of the WS portion showed it was not fermented to ethanol. Therefore, a wood characoal treatment was applied to the WS portion to remove...
Animal manure is an underutilized biomass resource containing a large amount of organic carbon that is often wasted with the existing manure disposal practices. A research project funded by the US Department of Energy explored the feasibility of using manure via the sugar platform in a...
The cellulose reactivity of two lignocellulosic feedstocks, switchgrass and poplar, was evaluated under straight saccharification (SS) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) conditions following dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments designed for optimum xylose yields. The optimum...
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