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Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a common identifiable teratogenic cause of mental retardation, neurological deficit, mental disorders, and developmental disabilities. Accurate estimates of the cost of care for persons with FAS are essential for appropriate funding of health care, developmental...
Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being one of the most severe outcomes. Current survey statistics find that approximately one in eight pregnant women (500,000 per...
Alcohol is an important element in the causal chain of risk for fetal, infant, and childhood mortality. Mortality risk is influenced by interactions of alcohol with other environmental and genetic factors and temporal periods of susceptibility. In this paper we discuss four time periods...
Heavy alcohol exposure can have serious and long‐lasting effects on the developing fetal brain. In the last decade, researchers have utilized quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the brains of living children and adults with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol...
Data were obtained from three samples of women of childbearing age. One sample of women is from prenatal clinics serving Plains Indian women. The second sample is of women from the Plains whose children were referred to special diagnostic developmental clinics, as their children were believed to...
The diagnosis of an infant, especially a newborn, with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is difficult due to the fact that not all of the features are apparent at that time. Many cases are also missed due to inadequate knowledge of the mother's drinking pattern and because of the examining...
The association between prenatal exposure to alcohol and growth is linear, and effects have been measured at levels of exposure that are considerably below one drink per day. Thus, with respect to growth deficits, there is no safe level of drinking during pregnancy. Alcohol exposure during...
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